A revision of the genus Cinchona by Maria Lucia Kawasaki

By Maria Lucia Kawasaki

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Binding of the cognate ligand to RTK activates Ras, which then relays the signal through a kinase cascade to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Activated MAPKs translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus to activate transcription factors. , 1994; Bisseling, 1999). However, it was once thought that plants have not evolved signaling systems that use a peptide as a signal. Instead, plant hormone signaling was believed to be mediated by small molecules including the five classical phytohormones: auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, ethylene, and abscisic acid.

The concept of positional information proposes concentration gradients of morphogens, which instruct cells within a homogeneous field about their position, thus leading to their commitment to different cell types (Wolpert, 1998). , 2001). With increasing knowledge on these ‘classical morphogens’, the meaning of the term morphogen has shifted. The general description defines a morphogen as a substance which forms a concentration gradient and which is involved in patterning (Wolpert, 1998). , 2001; Entchev & Gonz´alez-Gait´an, 2002).

1998) EIR1, a root specific protein involved in auxin transport, is required for gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. , 12, 2175–2187. , Perrot-Rechenmann, C. J. (1999) AUX1 regulates root gravitropism in Arabidopsis by facilitating auxin uptake within root apical tissues. , 18, 2066–2073. R. & Berleth, T. (1999) Responses of plants vascular system to auxin transport inhibition. Development, 126, 2979–2991. , Misera, S. & J¨urgens. G. (1991) Mutations affecting body organization in the Arabidopsis embryo.

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