By Frank Ruda
Pushing again opposed to the modern fable that freedom from oppression is freedom of selection, Frank Ruda resuscitates a primary lesson from the historical past of philosophical rationalism: a formal thought of freedom can come up simply from a protection of absolute necessity, utter determinism, and predestination.
Abolishing Freedom demonstrates how the best philosophers of the rationalist culture or even their theological predecessors—Luther, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Freud—defended not just freedom but additionally predestination and divine providence. through systematically investigating this normally missed and possible paradoxical truth, Ruda demonstrates how actual freedom conceptually presupposes the idea that the worst has regularly already occurred; in brief, fatalism. during this brisk and witty interrogation of freedom, Ruda argues that basically rationalist fatalism can treatment the modern affliction whose paradoxical identify at the present time is freedom.
Read or Download Abolishing Freedom: A Plea for a Contemporary Use of Fatalism (Provocations) PDF
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Additional resources for Abolishing Freedom: A Plea for a Contemporary Use of Fatalism (Provocations)
This move is justified because Luther himself contends that Erasmus forced him to exaggerate his previous exaggerations: excessively exaggerating exaggerations. 20 How should we understand this exaggeration without measure, something immeasurably excessive, that ultimately coincides with absolute clarity? 22 We witness here the practice of absolute necessity. We should thus read Luther as a Hegelian avant la lettre, taking the claims of a position seriously by showing how the assumptions on which it relies lead to the very opposite of what the position wanted to assert.
Volitions can lead to passions (what Descartes calls “internal emotions”), but passions can likewise lead to volitions. Externally generated passions represent something that did not originate in the soul but is nonetheless represented within the soul as if it originated in the soul. These passions do not simply overwhelm and determine the soul. Even if weakened and disoriented in its self-determining power, the soul still remains the determining subject of all its actions due to the simple fact that the soul essentially is a substance separable from all external objects, including the body.
As this is how one prepares (without being able to) for being reborn—considering oneself as not yet being created, always already noncreated. How to will not to be, thus how to let go, let be. We can clearly see here how Luther’s universalism asserts that anyone can be struck by the impossible event of God’s grace. It is thus necessary to have faith but impossible to do so, as it can be brought about only by God, and there is no relation between God and mankind. Famously Luther gave one of the most inhuman, charming definitions of the human being as a piece of shit that fell out of God’s anus.
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