Advanced Nutrition : Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and by Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Berdanier, Lynnette A.; Zempleni,

By Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Berdanier, Lynnette A.; Zempleni, Janos

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Extra info for Advanced Nutrition : Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism

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Some people can lose weight far more easily than others. These differences are probably of genetic origin. All these studies showed that the genetic influence on body fatness far outweighed the environmental influence. A number of genetic diseases are characterized by obesity. The Prader–Willi, the Bardet–Biedl, the Laurence–Moon, the Cohen, the Boyeson, and the Wilson–Turner syndromes are all characterized by obesity as well as by other abnormalities. 10. The Prader–Willi syndrome occurs as a result of a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 15.

With rising growth hormone levels, proteolysis is decreased and the body attempts to conserve body protein. By 48 h, ketosis, having been high, now begins to decline as the body adapts to using ketones and fatty acids as metabolic fuels. Trauma and Energy Needs Many years ago a disproportionate catabolic response to trauma was reported. Since that time, physicians, nutritionists, and physiologists alike have accepted this as an obligatory and necessary response to illness or injury. With the advent of parenteral and enteral feeding techniques, it has been possible to show that this loss, formerly thought to be obligatory, is not.

If the total energy value of tripalmitin was 7597 (31,907 kJ), then the efficiency of storing preformed fat would be (7597 – 73) ÷ 7597 or ~98%. Using protein for energy is even more costly and less efficient because the protein that is degraded for energy must first be broken down into its constituent amino acids, and these, in turn, must be deaminated and the amino group used to make urea. It takes 5 ATPs to make one molecule of urea. Approximately 20% of the gross energy of a typical protein is lost because of the need to synthesize urea.

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