By Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

This e-book offers a complete evaluate of the excellent advances visible in atomic physics over the past 50 years. The authors clarify how such growth was once attainable through highlighting connections among advancements that happened at various occasions. They speak about the hot views and the recent study fields that glance promising. The emphasis is put, no longer on targeted calculations, yet quite on actual principles. Combining either theoretical and experimental issues, the publication can be of curiosity to quite a lot of scholars, lecturers and researchers in quantum and atomic physics.

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This connection between linear superpositions of states and the existence of a transverse magnetization remains valid for angular momenta other than 1/2. In Chap. 4, we will review a few interference effects related to the existence of transverse quantities in a atomic gas. Effect of a π/2 pulse induced by a single photon in a resonant cavity It is possible nowadays to build cavities with very high Q-factors. This allows one to neglect all damping processes and prepare states of the field in this cavity that have a single photon.

6(a)). The smaller τ , the larger the resonance. This is an illustration of the time-frequency uncertainty relation. Now suppose that the field is applied in the form of two coherent pulses12 of the same duration τ at times ta and tb with tb − ta = T ≫ τ (see Fig. 5(b)). Since we are making a first order calculation of the transition amplitude from |− to |+ , we must consider only one interaction with the field, either with the first pulse or with the second one. 43) the same expression with ta replaced by tb .

The conservation of angular momentum explains the transfer of angular momentum from polarized photons to the internal degrees of freedom of atoms and is at the basis of the optical methods (double resonance and optical pumping) that are described in detail in Chap. 3. More recently, it has been shown that special types of laser beams, called Laguerre-Gaussian beams, also carry an “orbital” angular momentum that can be transferred to the external degrees of freedom of ultracold atoms. The conservation of linear momentum in absorption-spontaneous emission or absorption-stimulated emission cycles explains how a laser beam can exert forces on an atom and modify its velocity.