Ancient Greek Music: A New Technical History by Stefan Hagel

By Stefan Hagel

This ebook endeavours to pinpoint the family among musical, and particularly instrumental, perform and the evolving conceptions of pitch platforms. It strains the advance of historical melodic notation from reconstructed origins, via numerous variations necessitated by way of altering musical types and newly invented tools, to its ultimate canonical shape. It hence emerges how heavily historical harmonic thought trusted the culturally dominant tools, the lyre and the aulos. those threads are right down to past due antiquity, while information recorded via Ptolemy allow a really transparent view. Dr Hagel discusses the textual and pictorial facts, introducing mathematical methods anywhere possible, but in addition contributes to the translation of tools within the archaeological list and infrequently is ready to define the final beneficial properties of tools in a roundabout way attested. The booklet should be integral to all these attracted to Greek track, expertise and function tradition and the overall heritage of musicology.

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Quint. 11, p. 16–17, in accordance with the rightwards-opening interpretation, but contrary to a mechanical application of ąȵ ȭȳȹȷ = ‘turned counterclockwise by 90 degrees’, as one might be inclined to generalise from the custom followed in the cases of Ȝ ȡ ȣ (and of ȥ in Alypius, but not in Gaudentius: the horizontal forms of ȥ or half-ȥ have no open side and therefore no well-defined orientation). 60 We find it both in Aristides’ scales and in the Orestes fragment (as vocal ). Its shape , however, seems devised with respect to its suitability for building a triplet, whereas there was most probably no modulating pyknón above hyperypátʶ in earlier times: do the origins of the system reach further back than the introduction of the hyperypátʶ ?

It is easily seen how these typically diatonic notes are identical to standing notes of some nearby key (namely one standing to the right of the original key). For the lower diatonic movable note the same sign is used as in the other two genera. There are three fundamental correspondences which are fully upheld only in the central Lydian triad: that between a sign triplet and the notes of the pyknón; that between the fixed notes and the basic notes of the sign triplets; and that between the diatonic notes and the basic notes of the triplets.

Which certainly once constituted the upper end, makes it very likely that the vocal system was created before the upwards extension took place. It is also probable that at the time of this first conception of the vocal signs the system was already so large that the twenty-four letters of the alphabet did not suċce for all signs needed. Therefore a second alphabetic run had to be started, with letters inverted vertically, or, where this did not yield diĈerent forms, rotated or distorted. This second run did not extend further down than 8 (and proba42 43 44 45 For the following, cf.

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